Vietnamese Quick-Writing (VQW)
A Method of Shorthand Character Entry

 

Trần Tư Bnh

 

 

A. Introduction

B. Shorthand rules

C. Two Poem Portions In VQW Shorthand

D. Afterword

 

 

A. INTRODUCTION

 

This Article introduces a shorthand method of Vietnamese character entry, which will be useful for:

- Online chatting, SMS texting on a hand phone,

- Integration into Macros page of a Vietnamese keyboard in order that when texts are keyed in by shorthand VQW, they will result in their full normal writing (already available in WinVNKey).

 

The article also puts forward suggestions that could contribute to the future reforming of Vietnamese writing system (Chữ Quốc Ngữ), if any.

 

B. SHORTHAND RULES

 

Due to their hierarchal connections, rules and conventions should be read in the order they are presented. Illustrative examples should also be studied carefully as they could help memorize the rules.

 

1. Acute accents in block-up syllables (1 conventions):

 

We call block-up syllables, those syllables that have such ending consonants as: c, t, p and ch. Ex: c, t, p, etc When the acute accent () is removed from a block-up syllable, still it tends to read as originally accented: e.g: oc ->c, ơt ->ớt, up ->p.

Hence, we adopt the first convention:

 

  Omitting acute accents in block-up syllables e.g..: bưc = bức, nup = np, trot lọt = trt lọt. [Please note that lọt still keeps it low accent (.) ]

 

2. Y and  UY (3 conventions):
 

I replaces Y e.g.: i t = y t, l tr = l tr.

AY, Y remain AY, Y e.g.: ngy ấy = ngy ấy.

 

Y replaces UY e.g.: byt = but, lỵ = lụy, th = thy

 

3. STARTING CONSONANTS (9 conventions):

 

F replaces PH e.g.: fải = phải.

 

C replaces K e.g.: cẻ = kẻ, cể = kể, cn = kn.

K replaces KH e.g.: ki k kăn = khi kh khăn.

 

Z replaces D e.g.: z = d, zo zự = do dự.

D replaces Đ e.g.: di du d = đi đu đ.

J replaces GI e.g.: j j = gi g, jữ jn = giữ gn, z j = d g.

 

G replaces GH e.g.: ge = ghe, gế = ghế, g = gh.

NG replaces NGH e.g.: nge = nghe, ngề = nghề, ngĩ = nghĩ.

Q replaces QU e.g.: qay = quay, qn = qun, qệt = quệt.

 

4. ENDING CONSONANTS (3 conventions):

 

G replaces NG e.g.: xoog = xoong, trg mog = trng mong.

H replaces NH  e.g.: hoh = honh, huh = hunh, qah = quanh.

K replaces CH e.g.: hoạk = hoạch, nguệk = nguệch, tak bạk = tch bạch.

 

 

5. SYLLABLES THAT ARE COMBINED VOWELS + ENDING LETTERS

(17 conventions + 1 exception):

 

In addition to the 5 syllables treated under Section B.4 above, traditional Vietnamese scripts have 52 complex syllables consisting of combined vowels + ending letters.

 

- The combined-vowels are known to be, exhaustively: OĂ, U, OE, I /Y, OA, UƠ, U, ƯƠ, UY.

- The ending letter(s) can be any of the following terminals: T, P, C , N, M, NG, I , Y, O and U.

 

All these complex syllables of 3 or 4 characters long will be shorthanded into 2-character syllables according to the following rules:


- Combined vowels will be replaced by one SINGLE VOWELS
-
Ending letter(s) will be replaced by one SINGLE CONSONANTS

 

Specifically:

Complex syllable

Combined-vowel

+ ... Ending letter

Ă replaces OĂ 

replaces U 

E replaces OE 

I replaces I hay Y

O replaces OA

Ơ replaces UƠ 

U replaces U

Ư replaces ƯƠ 

Y replaces UY

Exception: A replaces OA in oay syllable) 

 

D replaces T

F replaces P

S replaces C

L replaces N

V replaces M

Z replaces NG

J replaces I, Y

W replaces O, U

 

 

 

Applying the above (18) replacement conventions, we obtain the following 52 shorthanded syllables, namely:

 

-         ĂD, ĂS, ĂL, ĂV, ĂZ for oăt, oăc, oăn, oăm, oăng (5)

-         D, L, Z, J for ut, un, ung, uy (4)

-         ED, EL, EV, EW for oet, oen, oem, oeo. (5)

-         ID, IF, IS, IL, IV, IZ, IW .. for it, ip, ic, in, im,   .... ing, iu. (7)

-         ID, IL, IV, IZ, IW for yt, yn, ym, yng, yu. (5)

-         OD, OF, OS, OL, OV, OZ, OJ, AJ, OW for oat, oap, oac, oan, oam, oang, oai, oay, oao (7)

-         ƠD, ƠL for uơt, uơn. (3)

-         UD, US, UL, UV, UZ, UJ for ut, uc, un, um, ung, ui (6)

-         ƯD, ƯF, ƯS, ƯL, ƯV, ƯZ, ƯJ, ƯW for ươt, ươp, ươc, ươn, ươm, ương, ươi, ươu. (8)

-         YD, YL for uyt, uyn. (2)

 

Below are the comprehensive examples for all 52 shorthanded syllables

 

- ĂD = oăt e.g: ngăd = ngoắt, ngặd = ngoặt. 

- ĂS = oăc e.g: hặs = hoặc, ngăs = ngoắc.

- ĂL = oăn e.g: xăl = xoăn.

- ĂV = oăm e.g: kăv = khoăm.

- ĂZ = oăng e.g: hẵz = hoẵng, kắz = khoắng. (5)

 

- D = ut e.g: kd = khuất, lậd = luật.

- L = un e.g: kl = khun, tầl = tuần.

- Z = ung e.g: bg kz = bng khung.

- J = uy e.g: ky kỏa = khuy khỏa. (4+5=9)

 

- ED = oet e.g: ked = khot, le lẹd = le loẹt.

- EL = oen e.g: hel = hoen.

- EV = oem e.g: ngev ngv = ngoem ngom.

- EW = oeo e.g: ngẻw = ngoẻo. (4+9=13)

 

- ID = it, yt e.g: fịd = phiệt, id = yết, kid = khiết, zịd = diệt

- IF = ip ...... e.g: dịf = điệp, kif = khiếp, ngịf = nghiệp, zịf = diệp.

- IS = ic e.g: tis = tiếc, vịs = việc.

- IL = in, yn e.g: fil = phin, l = yến, qil = quyn, tl = tiền.

- IV = im, ym e.g: fv = phiếm, ỉv = yểm, ngiv = nghim. 

- IZ = ing, yng e.g: iz = yng, jz = giếng, ngiz = nghing.

- IW = iu, yu e.g: fw = phiếu, w = yếu, nhw dw = nhiều điều. (12+13=25)

 

- OD = oat e.g: kod = khot, lọd = loạt.

- OF = oap e.g: ngof = ngop.

- OS = oac e.g: kos = khoc, tọs = toạc.

- OL = oan e.g: hl tl = hon ton, kol = khoan.

- OV = oam e.g: ngọv = ngoạm.

- OZ = oang e.g: hz = hong, kỏz = khoảng.

- OJ = oai e.g: kj = khoi, ngj = ngoi.

- Exception: AJ = oay e.g: laj haj = loay hoay.

- OW = oao e.g: ngow = ngoao. (9+25=34)

 

- ƠD = uơt e.g: hợd = huợt.

- ƠL = uơn e.g: hỡl = huỡn. (2+34=36)

 

- UD = ut e.g: nud = nuốt, rụd = ruột.  

- US = uc e.g: cus = cuốc, thụs = thuộc.

- UL = un e.g: kul = khun, lul = lun, ml = muốn.

- UV = um e.g: lụv thụv = luộm thuộm, nhv = nhuốm.

- UZ = ung e.g: z = uống.

- UJ = ui e.g: cj = cuối. (6+35=42)     

 

- ƯD = ươt e.g: lưd = lướt, lựd = lượt.

- ƯF = ươp e.g: cưf = cướp.

- ƯS = ươc e.g: dựs = được, fưs = phước, zựs = dược.

- ƯL = ươn e.g: lựl = lượn.

- ƯV = ươm e.g: bưv bứv = bươm bướm.

- ƯZ = ương e.g: fưz = phương, gưz = gương.

- ƯJ = ươi e.g: tưj cừj = tươi cười.

- ƯW = ươu e.g: rựw = rượu. (8+42=50)

 

- YD = uyt e.g: kyd = khuyết, tyd = tuyết, tỵd = tuyệt.    

- YL = uyn e.g: kyl = khuyn, ll = luyến. (2+50=52) 

 

C. TWO POEM PORTIONS IN VQW SHORTHAND

 

Using the 33 conventions + 1 exception illustrated in the above examples, readers should understand the following 2 shorthanded poems portions with ease:

 

First portion of the poem ng đồ by Vũ Đnh Lin:


Mỗi năm hoa do nở

Mỗi năm hoa đo nở
Lại thấy g dồ j

Lại thấy ng đồ gi

By mực tu, jấy dỏ
By mực tu, giấy đỏ

Bn fố dg ngừj qa
Bn phố đng người qua

 

Bao nhiw ngừj thu vid

Bao nhiu người thu viết
Tấm tăc ngợi ken ti

Tấm tắc ngợi khen ti
Hoa tay thảo nhữg net

Hoa tay thảo những nt
Như fựz ma rồg bay

Như phượng ma rồng bay

  

First stanzas of Truyện Kiều by the national poet Nguyễn Du:

 

Trăm năm trog ci ngừj ta                  

Trăm năm trong ci người ta                 

Chữ ti chữ mệh ko l get nhau           

Chữ ti chữ mệnh kho l ght nhau   

Trải qa một cụs bể zu                        

Trải qua một cuộc bể du                     

Nhữg dw trg thấy m dau dớn lg        

Những điều trng thấy m đau đớn lng   

Lạ j bỉ săc tư fog                              

Lạ g bỉ sắc tư phong                           

Trời xah qen thi m hồg dh gen          

Trời xanh quen thi m hồng đnh ghen  

Cảo thơm lần jở trưs dn                     

Cảo thơm lần giở trước đn                  

Fog th c lục cn trỳl sử xah               

Phong tnh c lục cn truyền sử xanh    

 

D. AFTERWORD

 

This VQW shorthand method has also been integrated into WinVNKey (except for only 2 components, i = y and y = uy ) by Dr. Ng Đnh Học, author of the keyboard. Applying this VQW method, all texts shorthandedly keyed in will automatically reproduce themselves in full normal writing. Interested users can download WinVNKey FREE at http://winvnkey.sf.net. The successful application of VQW simply requires an effective memorization of the 33 plus 1 shorthand conventions presented above.

 

This method is estimated to cut down  40% of the total keystrokes. It can be used in combination with any existing user-defined macro page, and thus further improves the overall performance. A Vietnamese version of this guide, Phương php mới g tắt chữ Việt can be found at http://chuvietnhanh.sf.net

 

Upon reading this article, Dr. Nguyễn Vĩnh-Trng noticed that the letter W has not been exploited as a starting consonant. He suggested its substitution for both NG and NGH (i.e. W=NG,=NGH). For further details, please read his article C nn thm phụ m đầu W trong  Tốc K Chữ Việt  chăng? (Should W be used as a starting consonant in  Vietnamese Quick-Writing) at http://chuvietnhanh.sf.net/ThemPhuAmDauWTrongTocKyChuViet.htm .

 

Shorthand ideas were originated from pioneering authors who put them forward in discussion concerning the issue of reforming the national writing system. Below are the brief origins of some of them.

 

- Omitting acute accents in any block-up syllables: This suggestion appeared very early, and was first seen in a paper by Mr. Dương Tự Nguyn: Một kiến về sự sửa đổi chữ quốc ngữ (An opinion for the improvement of the National Scripts) Literature Magazine No 5, 15-10-1932, and the following issues. (quoted from Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, Văn Ha Publishing House, H Nội, 1961, p.79).

 

- I as a substitution for Y: I substitutes Y wherever Y is the only vowel in a word found in the dictionary: Nouveau Dictionnaire Franais-Annamite, Imp. de la Mission, Si Gn, 1922. (quoted from 100 năm Pht triển Tiếng Việt by Phụng Nghi, Văn Nghệ Publishing House, USA, 1999, p.134).

 

- Y for UY: first suggested in reports by Messrs Nguyễn Trọng Phấn, Hong Tụy, Nng ch Thy and Ph Đức Thnh, delivered at the seminar on The Issue of Reforming the National Scripts) 1960 in H Nội. (op.cit Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.309, 335, 341, 348).

 

- F for PH: suggestion by Mr. Ng Quang Chu, found in his work The Nations Characters (Chữ của dn tộc) H Nội, 1946, p.122. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.62).

 

- C for K: suggestion by Mr. Ng quang Chu, found in his work The Nations Characters (Chữ của dn tộc) H Nội, 1946, p.122. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.62).

 

- K for KH: first suggested in reports by Messrs Hong Tụy and Ph Đức Thnh, delivered at the seminar on The Issue of Reforming the National Scripts) 1960 in H Nội. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.335, 348).

 

- Z for D: a very early suggestion, first found in Mr E.F. Aymoniers book Nos transcriptions, Excursions et Reconnaissances, Saigon, 1886, tome XII. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.45).

 

- D substitutes Đ: suggestion by Mr Legrand de la Liraye, found in the Dictionnaire lmentaire Annamite-Franais, (Rudimentary Vietnamese French Dictionary) Saigon, 1868, p.3. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.43).

 

- J for GI and G for GH: suggestions made by Mr. E.F. Aymonier, puplished in Nos transcriptions, Excursions et Reconnaissances, Saigon, 1886, tome XII. (op.cit.. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.45).

 

- NG for NGH: suggestion first appeared 1906 in Proposals by Research Panel on National Scripts, passed by The Council for the Improvement of Indigenous Teaching. Cf. Conseil de Perfectionnement de lEnseignement indigne. Premire session, Hanoi, 1906, p.64. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.54).

 

- Q for QU: first suggested in reports by Mr. Hong Tụy, delivered at the seminar on The Issue of Reforming the National Scripts) 1960 in H Nội. (op.cit. Vấn đề Cải tiến Chữ Quốc ngữ, p.335).

 

- Omission of the character N in the ending consonants NG and NH: hardly ever a straightforward proposal by any known authors, but often practiced by quite a few people to speed up their writing.

 

 

Trần Tư Bnh (Email: tubinhtran@gmail.com, Web: Chữ Việt Nhanh).

 

Readers can also read other versions of this article (with additional tables and figures) at any of the following links:

http://chuvietnhanh.sf.net/TocKyChuViet_[BaiCoThemHinhBang].htm

http://chuvietnhanh.sf.net/TocKyChuViet_[BaiCoThemHinhBang].pdf

http://chuvietnhanh.sf.net/TocKyChuViet_[BaiCoThemHinhBang].doc

 

 

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